Glossary of Terms

ACCELERATORS – Material additives used to accelerate, or reduce, the setting time of concrete causing it to harden faster.

AERATED CONCRETE – Concrete that is formed using gas-forming admixtures that form hydrogen or oxygen bubbles in the cement mix.

AGGREGATE – A mixture of sand, rock, crushed stone, expanded materials, or particles that improve the formation and flow of cement paste and improve the concrete’s structural performance.

AGGREGATE BASE – crushed gravel that is typically added as a foundation for the asphalt pavement.

AGITATOR TRUCK – Vehicle designed to take ready-mixed concrete and deliver it ready to be used at a construction site. The truck bed contains a large barrel or drum that is used to continuously roll or agitate the concrete mixture keeping it from solidifying before use.

AIR CONTENT – The volume of air present in a concrete or mortar mix. A controlled air content prevents concrete from cracking during the freeze/thaw cycle.

ASPHALT – A brownish-black solid or semisolid mixture of bitumens obtained from native deposits or as a petroleum byproduct, used in paving. As a petroleum byproduct it is a mixture of rock (aggregate) and hot oil mixed together at a temperature of about 375 F.

ASPHALT DRIVEWAYS – are made up of many different environmentally safe products: stone (aggregate), fine stone, asphalt cement, & sand. These different ingredients are bonded together by the asphalt cement to form a very strong hot mix, which is usually about 350 degrees in temperature.

ASPHALT GRINDING – Is used to remove damaged asphalt or to prepare an existing surface for an overlay. The ground asphalt makes an excellent base material. It can also be recycled into new asphalt.

ASPHALT PULVERIZING – Pulverizing is the process of breaking up your existing asphalt into an aggregate and blending”new” aggregate with your existing base aggregate which is then compacted, graded, compacted again at which time it is ready for paving. Pulverizing is a very cost-effective way to reconstruct your existing pavement. This process eliminates the expensive excavation and trucking of your existing asphalt, and as a significant bonus, adds to your base aggregate thickness, thereby giving you a stronger base than what had existed previously.

BALLAST – A layer of coarse stone, gravel, slag, etc., over which concrete is placed.

BEDDING – A prepared base for masonry or concrete.

BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT – Bituminous pavements are made with by-products of petroleum, such as asphalt. Weather and seasonal changes can cause roadways and the earth below them to rise or fall slightly. As these natural shifts occur, bituminous pavements allow the road surface to bend or flex slightly without breaking. Bituminous material softens when heated and can be prepared and applied in a wide range of concentrations. Thin layers of bituminous material are sometimes applied with a pressure sprayer to the base course or the top course. The bituminous material seeps into the crushed rock and penetrates the tiny spaces between the compacted rocks, binding the aggregate together. To provide traction for moving traffic, a thin layer of aggregate may then be spread over the bituminous material and compacted.

BLANKET – Insulation used for protecting fresh concrete during curing.

BLOCK OUT – The installing of a box or barrier within a foundation wall to prevent the concrete from entering an area. For example, foundation walls are sometimes “blocked” in order for mechanical pipes to pass through the wall, to install a crawl space door, and to depress the concrete at a garage door location.

BURLAP – Material often used to protect newly finished concrete from rain as well as maintaining moisture in a slab.

CALCIUM CHLORIDE – An additive used in ready-mix to accelerate the curing, usually used during damp conditions.

CASTING – Pouring a liquid material, or slurry, like concrete, into a mold or form whose physical form it will take on as it solidifies.

CATCH BASINS – These devices direct water into the drainage system. Most common catch basins today are built on catch basin rings (modualocks) and are the easy ones to fix. Some other types are built on the older brick and mortar system. This repair normally requires removal all the bricks and rebuilding with modern catch basin rings. Other types of catch basins call for custom repair work because the steel frame kit is sitting on the pre-cast concrete catch basin with no risers. Risers give the opportunity to raise or lower the catch basin by just removing or adding 1 square riser. When the steel frame kit is sitting on the structure itself, the repair work is very labor intensive and requires a person with knowledge of concrete restoration. In the case of sunken catch basins, over a period of time, the asphalt around the catch basin starts to crack and water sets in. Then the sub base starts to wash away slowly into the ground. In most cases, it leans into the catch basin risers (rings) that support the steel frame. With all the water that is flowing into the ground, it eventually destroys the concrete rings.

CATCH BASIN REPAIR – Repairs are made to catch basins by saw cutting around the catch basin and excavating downwards to expose the foundation and drain system to insure there are no leaks running through it. Then the catch basin risers are inspected to see if any are cracked or have come apart. This mainly happens from the freeze and thaw cycles. Also, in some cases they sift and collapse from lack of water draining (standing water). If any catch basin risers are needed, they are replaced and adjusted to proper levels to insure a proper drain flow. Then the excavated areas are backfilled and repaved. Once the repairs are completed, the edges of asphalt repairs are routed and sealed to add to the maintenance free life of the catch basin.

CEMENT – A building material made by grinding calcined limestone and clay to a fine powder, which can be mixed with water and poured to set as a solid mass or used as an ingredient in making mortar or concrete. Also known as the gray powder that is the “glue” in concrete.

COLD-PLANNING – Typically removes 1″ to 4″ of surface asphalt or 1″ – 2″ of concrete allowing for the application of a thin overlay or wearing surface which preserves ancillary structures (e.g. curb and gutter) but allows improvements to the grade and surface of the pavement section. When used for full roadway reconstruction, cold planning is also capable of removing up to 12 inches of paving material and base in a single pass. Another cold planning application is for slot cutting of only badly deteriorated sections of roadway – then full depth paving to restore an otherwise good road. This helps preserve or correct grade structure and cleans up rutted or cracked surfaces. It also improves bonding and surface quality and reduces costs of roadway rehabilitation.

CONCRETE – A hard, strong building material created by combining a mineral (which is usually sand, gravel, or crushed stone) a binding agent (natural or synthetic cement), chemical additives, and water. It is an excellent material to be used in road building.

CONCRETE PAVING – Concrete is considered to be a more permanent surface than asphalt. Its life span can be indefinite if installed properly. Concrete paving is also more costly than asphalt paving. Concrete surfaces are used when asphalt paving would not be as effective such as for the following areas: forklift turning areas, truck landing gear pads or trash bin areas.

CONCRETE WHEEL STOPS – Concrete blocks that make sure vehicles stop where they’re supposed to.

CONSOLIDATION – Compaction usually accomplished by vibration of newly placed concrete to minimum practical volume, to mold it within form shapes and around embedded parts and reinforcement, and to eliminate voids other than entrained air.

CRACK SEALING – Crack Sealing is the process where the street cracks are sealed using a Polymer Modified AC-20 liquid (AC-20 can also contain crumb-rubber recycled tires), and other types of Crack Sealing products. The sealing prevents water infiltration into the road base, thus preventing potholes. This process is performed during the early spring, and late fall months.

The current method used for the crack sealing process is Well Filling. This method fills the void of the crack up to the road surface; little or no material is placed on the actual road surface. A minimum 1 inch depth, and 1/2 inch width is need to use the Well Fill method. This is a cost effective way of extending road life 2 to 3 years.

E-ROAD GREEN PAVING MATERIAL – E-Road Green is a low cost material because it is a secondary product made from recycled waste concrete, and when it requires replacement it can be recycled again any number of times. It also features good economic efficiency as a product that makes use of resource-recycling technology as a recycled paving material that is making an invaluable contribution to the construction of the global environmentally friendly recycling-type society.

FABRIC OVERLAYS – Provide a waterproof membrane to protect the base, and will also retard reflective cracking.

FULL-DEPTH HOT MIX ASPHALT DRIVEWAYS – Full-Depth Hot Mix driveways are totally constructed of Hot Mix from your sub-grade up, rather than having a stone base with an asphalt layer on top. Full-Depth driveways have the added advantages of being more resistant to freeze-thaw actions and poor drainage problems by keeping water out of the driveway base and providing greater uniform pavement strength.

GRADING – The surfacing or leveling of the ground.

GRAVEL – is in all probability the oldest paving material. Small stones were beaten into the earth to form pavements in ancient gardens. In modern parks and gardens gravel paving has the enormous advantage of allowing sustainable drainage. It is of course important to select a high quality paving gravel. River-washed round gravel paving is soft and beautiful but not-so-easy to walk on. Sharp gravel in a range of particle sizes (‘ungraded gravel’) self-binds to form a smooth and stable pavement. Described as stabilisé, it is a widely used paving material in French parks and gardens.

HOT MIX ASPHALT PAVEMENT – In its simplest form, the hot mix asphalt pavement is a proportioned combination of aggregate and liquid asphalt cement that’s been heated in a central mixing “Hot Mix” facility. It is then transported to a project and spread and compacted on a road surface before cooling. Typically, aggregate comprises 93 – 96% of the paving mixture and the “liquid” asphalt comprises the remaining 4 – 7% (depending on the size and grading of the aggregate). Not only is it durable, long lasting and easy to maintain, the flexibility of the pavement enables it to easily conform to varying terrain features; and, being flexible, it resists ground movements (freeze-thaw actions) that could affect rigid pavements. There are many varieties of asphalt mixtures, each formulated for a specific purpose. Some provide a smoother and more uniformly textured surface, and may be more desirable, especially if you also intend to use a portion of your driveway as a play area (such as a basketball court, etc.). Consult your asphalt contractor for recommendations based on your own unique needs.

LIQUID ASPHALT – Liquid asphalt is derived from distilling crude oil and is the heavy residue remaining after other petroleum products have been removed

MICRO-RESURFACING – Micro-resurfacing is the application of a Polymer Modified Emulsion Base. The entire road surface is overlaid (the material is placed over top of the existing asphalt surface of the street) with a 1/2 to 3/4 inch of material. The depth of material placed on the street is determined by the condition of the existing road surface. If the road surface is in fair condition a 1/2 inch of material is used. If the surface is in poor condition 3/4 inch of material is used. Using the Micro-resurfacing process should extend the life of an existing street 2 to 5 years (estimate).

MORTAR – used as a bond in masonry or for covering a wall.

PARKING BLOCKS – Parking Blocks and Parking Lot Bumper Curbs/Handicap & Loading Dock Ramps and bumper stoppers (curbs) are used mainly when cars are parking too close to buildings. This will stop the car tires and the car bumping into walls.

PATCHWORK – Patch work creates a bond with older asphalt overlays and newer durable patches; thus, increasing the strength of older driveways, parking lots, asphalt curbs, speed-bumps, trenches, etc. The primary function of patching over old asphalt is to gain a few years of use to the existing property. If there are many cracks and broken areas of the asphalt it may be beneficial to resurface your entire driveway. Key benefits of patchwork: keep existing asphalt from tearing up, mend holes and strengthen weak spots and increase durability.

PAVING – Laying of asphalt on driveways, parking lots, airports or roads.

PAVING BLOCKS – Paving Blocks is a whole new concept in paving material used in exterior or interior architecture. This concept is picking up fast in India due to its advantages over conventional flooring materials. Various patterns can be obtained using different paving blocks and / or different colours.

PETROMAT OVERLAYS – Petromat is a geotextile fabric that is used to slow down reflective cracking on newly resurfaced asphalt areas. Petromat can only be applied with hot oils like AR4000 or AR8000 oil. After spreading the hot oil, a specially outfitted tractor applies the petromat, which is rolled as a carpet. The new asphalt is laid on top of this combination. It is recommended that a minimum of 1 – 1/2 inches of asphalt be applied over petromat.

POT HOLE PATCHING – A pothole occurs when there is a small failure in the road or parking asphalt surface and if left unattended, it will start to degrade the surface.

RESURFACING – By putting a new surface of hot mix asphalt over your driveway you are increasing the overall life expectancy of the entry way to your home. Resurfacing older driveways is necessary if the existing one is corroded, worn out, or cracking in many parts of the property. A newly resurfaced driveway will increase the value and durability of your property; ultimately inviting visitors into your dwelling place. Key benefits of resurfacing: strengthen old asphalt, maintain beauty and increase longevity.

SEAL COATING – Seal coating is a process of applying a protective coating to an asphalt pavement. Primarily used on driveways and parking areas, this coating protects asphalt from the damaging effects of the sun, tire marks, aging and petroleum products. Over time the asphalt may become cracked or brittle, making the asphalt fall apart. By sealing the asphalt you will prevent as little damage to the existing asphalt as possible. It also fills surface cracks to prevent water from entering and damaging the base material. Seal coating protects and extends the life of asphalt and its deep black smooth appearance is visually appealing as well. Seal coating should be done every 2-4 years for best results. Preventative maintenance here is the key to seal coating! Key Benefits of seal coating are: makes driveways water tight, creates bond for asphalt, helps asphalt cure properly.

SLURRY – A thin mixture of a liquid, especially water, and any of several finely divided substances, such as cement, plaster of Paris, or clay particles. The mixture is used for pumping or for wash over a surface.

SPEED BUMPS – Speed bumps and traffic barriers or traffic barricades provide the tools you need to devise a clearly defined and comprehensive plan to control the flow and placement of traffic in your parking lot. There are several types of speed bumps. They include the Hot Asphalt Speed Bump which comes in different sizes and the Rubberized Speed Bump which comes already made and gets pegged or drilled into the pavement. It attaches easily to concrete with lag bolts or to asphalt with spikes. It is constructed of 100% recycled plastic and is highly visible for orderly organized parking in your lot.

STRIPING – Professional Line Striping assists your visitors in the safe use of your parking lot. It directs traffic to the proper route of entrance and exit, allowable areas to park, loading zones, crosswalks, and defines drive aisles that are wide enough to avoid accidents with cars and pedestrians. Properly designed parking spaces also maximize the number of cars you can safely accommodate. Customers appreciate a well designed and well marked parking system. The parking lot is the first thing that customers or visitors see. A freshly painted parking lot can lend an attractive impression to the overall image of your property.

WEARING COURSE – A road’s top layer, which directly supports moving vehicles, is called the wearing course. It is made of a solid layer of pavement and is designed to be smooth and to withstand erosion from traffic and weather. Two main types of pavements are used: bituminous, or flexible, pavement and concrete, or rigid, pavement. Bituminous pavement is cheaper and easier to construct, but it requires more maintenance. Concrete pavement lasts for a very long time with minimal upkeep but is much more expensive and time-consuming to build.

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